All Research Papers

Paper Title: Assessment of the two satellite-based precipitation products TRMM and RFE rainfall records using ground based measurements
Prepared by: Ahmed Mostafa Ahmed Amin
Description:

In several research domains, the precipitation products produced based on the Satellite images are used because of their advantage of high spatiotemporal resolution and near-global coverage. And still the products applications are limited according to the uncertainty. To facilitate using these products, it’s vital to identify and quantify their error characteristics. The objective of this study is to evaluate the two satellite-based precipitation products; RainFall Estimate (RFE) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) using ground gauge-based rainfall measurements throughout the Blue Nile River sub-basin in the Sudan for the period (2001– 2016). The importance of this study comes from the discontinuity of the ground data due to some difficulties such as the accessibility of the region’s topography, in addition to the poorly gauged areas. Therefore, estimating the amount of rain from verified satellites is useful to obtain the pattern of rainfall that could be used in hydrological models to provide river discharges forecasts and to specify areas of flood hazard. For a quantified evaluation of satellite-based precipitation products, continuous Mean Error (ME), and Correlation Coefficient (CC) were used. The results show that RFE and TRMM products performing well in estimating and observing rainfall over the study area.


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Paper Title: Breach Opening Characteristics and Dam Failure Due to Overtopping
Prepared by: Hydraulics Research Institute
Description:

Earth Embankment dams are highly exposed to failure due to overtopping especially with the changing climate worldwide. The failure progress and breach profile are very important characteristics that are reflected on the resulting downstream hazard. A cohesive earth mixture embankment was used in this study to explore the breach parameters’ correlation with dam failure progress. To achieve the study objectives, a dam model in small scale flume was directed to flop under hydraulic controlled conditions. Three pilot channel shapes were considered in this study. The effect of the pilot channel shape, breach characteristics in addition to the compaction percentage on the breach morphology and discharge were investigated. The erosion was found to develop from vertical to mostly lateral in nature. It was found that the shape affects the failure progression and time to breach. The results confirm the importance of dam compaction in resisting the failure with increased water level.


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Paper Title: Multivariate statistical analysis of geomorphological parameters for Sinai Peninsula
Prepared by: Hydraulics Research Institute
Description:

Sinai Peninsula was delineated to 62 hydrological catchments using WMS and GIS tools. Thirty geo-morphometric parameters were calculated for each catchment. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine the important parameters namely Factor analysis (FA), Cluster Analysis (CA), and Regression Analysis (RA). FA resulted in the exclusion of some factors (filtration of parameters), as they do not have a significant relationship with other parameters. CA in Q-mode classified the 62 catchments concerning their close hydrological characteristics and in R-mode classified the parameters into 2 main groups and five sub-main groups. RA then presents the relation between the correlated parameters. The catchment area showed the highest correlation with other parameters. Finally, RA between highly correlated parameters was employed to develop relations between these parameters. The overall coherence of the data indicates the participation of the individual hydro-morphological parameters in several influence factors. A useful relation for the construction of unit hydrograph, according to [23] was developed. Multivariate studies yield a better understanding of the physical behavior in arid regions where the records of hydrological events are very scarce or absent. The results were found to be compatible with the fact that most studied basins related to the late period of geomorphological.


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Paper Title: Evaluation of Agriculture Development Projects status in Lake Tana Sub-basin applying Remote Sensing Technique
Prepared by: Hydraulics Research Institute
Description:

This study aims at the evaluation of water resources use in Lake Tana sub-basin based on the status of eight development projects that are planned to be executed in this region. Remote sensing and satellite imaging have been used in addition to their product applications. This is vital due to its hydrological significance and direct impact on Egyptian water resources. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been calculated, for the year 2017, to recognize the agriculture land use and land cover. Then, by integration with the potential agriculture projects basic data, such as water consumption and crop pattern, water resources use in the basin was evaluated and quantified. The analysis performed in this study showed the following: the Koga project was the only implemented project from the proposed eight irrigation and drainage projects; the Megech and South-West (SW) Tana projects are still under construction. The density of the vegetation cover varies yearly from 75% to 100% in the Gumera project, whereas it did not exceed 40% in the North-East and North-West Tana projects. It varies from 15% to 100% in the Megech, Ribb, South-West Tana, and Gilgel Abbay projects. Projects’ calculated NDVI coverages reflect the behavior of the local community in cultivation depending on rainfall (green water), or by direct extraction from rivers as supplementary irrigation (Blue Water). This behavior may be based on their own interests and uses, not based on planning or investment, except for the Koga project. The water consumption from those projects is estimated at about 933 million m3/year.


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Paper Title: Estimating Actual Evapotranspiration over a Large and Complex Irrigation System of the Nile Delta in Egypt
Prepared by: Hydraulics Research Institute
Description:

In the Nile Delta region of Egypt, measurements of Actual Evapotranspiration (ETa) and Potential Evapotranspiration (ETp) are difficult, expensive and labor-intensive. The current paper aimed at finding the superior method for estimating the ETa and ETa/ETp in the Nile Delta governorates by comparing different methods. Three different methods were used for ETa estimates being; Remote Sensing approach by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ETa-product (MOD16A2), FAO (33) method, and Irrigation Water Balance Calculation (IWBC) method. The three ETa methods were applied for five governorates in 2017, where the data for IWBC were available. However, only MOD16A2 was compared with FAO (33) for ETa/ETp ratio and the two selected methods were applied for all eight Nile Delta governorates for the period of 2008 -2017. The MOD16A2 product was derived from the MODIS satellite images using an improved evapotranspiration algorithm based on the Penman-Monteith equation. FAO (33) was based on the relationship between the relative yield loss of any crop to relative reduction of water consumption. The IWBC required estimation of both; the field application and conveyance water losses as the only unknown elements of irrigation water balance in Delta governorates. For comparison between applied methods, descriptive statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA) for checking difference, and cluster analysis were applied. The results showed a significant difference values between MOD16A2 and FAO (33) for estimating ETa/ETp ratios. However, the difference for ETa estimation was insignificant between the three methods indicating a significant relationship, with a strong correlation between MOD16A2 and IWBC. It was observed that ETa values were impacted by the cropping pattern, since they were very close in governorates having the same dominant crops. In conclusion, both MOD16A2 and IWBC can be utilized for ETa estimation. Both MOD16A2 and FAO (33) are not confirmed for estimation of ETa/ETp ratio due to the significant difference between both results. FAO (33) cannot be utilized for both ETa and ETa/ETp ratio estimates. Further data collection and investigation on ETa and ETp estimates methods are recommended.


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Paper Title: THE OPTIMAL SOLUTION OF GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT APPLYING GENETIC ALGORITHMS IN WADI EL-FARIGH AREA, WESTERN DELTA, EGYPT
Prepared by: Hydraulics Research Institute
Description:

Groundwater in the western desert especially in Wadi El-Farigh area is considered a strategic water reserve because of its scarcity as the unique source of fresh water in this area. The exceeding rates of exploitation the agricultural development beside new reclamation projects has been threatened the groundwater potentiality which subjected to high rate of depletion; therefore sustainable management strategies should be developed by decision makers to optimally utilize groundwater resources in this promising area.


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Paper Title: Hazard Degrees Assessment of Flash Floods, Applying Multi-Criteria Analysis, Gulf of Aqaba Basins, Sinai, Egypt
Prepared by: Hydraulics Research Institute
Description:

Flash flood disasters have a significant impact and cause immense damages to lives and infrastructure. This study will assess the risk of flash floods in Gulf of Aqaba Basins (GAB), Sinai Peninsula. Watershed Modeling System (WMS) package was used to automatically delineate the drainage network and determine the hydro-morphological parameters of 33 GAB sub basins via the 90 m Digital Elevation Model files.


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Paper Title: Hazard Degrees Assessment of Flash Floods, Applying Multi-Criteria Analysis, Gulf of Aqaba Basins, Sinai, Egypt
Prepared by: Hydraulics Research Institute
Description:

Flash flood disasters have a significant impact and cause immense damages to lives and infrastructure. This study will assess the risk of flash floods in Gulf of Aqaba Basins (GAB), Sinai Peninsula. Watershed Modeling System (WMS) package was used to automatically delineate the drainage network and determine the hydro-morphological parameters of 33 GAB sub basins via the 90 m Digital Elevation Model files.


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Paper Title: Optimal Management of Groundwater Resources in Arid Areas Case Study: North Sinai, Egypt
Prepared by: Hydraulics Research Institute
Description:

The groundwater resources in North Sinai area are affected by salt water up-coning due to overpumping phenomenon beside seawater intrusion. To protect these salt-affected ecosystems, an optimum water resources management is carried out by applying mathematical modeling techniques in this paper. The chosen area for study is located in the northern coastal zone of Sinai Peninsula of Egypt and covers about 1750 km2. It is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the North and Gebel El-Maghara and Arish-Rafah highway to the south. Its climate is hot in summer and rainy in winter.


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Paper Title: Dilution of Single Port Submerged Diffuser Clogged by a Free Rotating Propeller
Prepared by: Hydraulics Research Institute
Description:

Thermal pollution raises the water source temperature and thus causes a change in the physical, chemical, and biochemical properties of water. That makes limitations for designing cooling systems, which increase its cost. Single port submerged diffuser is used for the disposal of hot water.


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